May 11, 1998 Held


Republic of the Philippines

Election for President (Philippine President)


Voter Participation

Cast Votes:29,285,775
Valid Votes:26,902,536
Invalid Votes:2,383,239

Vote Share by Candidate:

Joseph ESTRADA10,722,295


Jose de VENECIA4,268,483


Raul ROCO3,720,212


Emilio OSMENA3,347,631


Alfredo LIM2,344,362


Renato de VILLA1,308,352

Election Results Modified: Aug 17, 2023

General Information

At stake in this election:

  • The office of President of Philippines

Description of government structure:

  • Chief of State: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS
  • Head of Government: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS
  • Assembly: Philippines has a bicameral Congress (Kongreso) consisting of the Senate (Senado) with 24 seats and the House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan) with 214 seats.

Description of electoral system:

  • The President is elected by popular vote to serve a 6-year term.
  • In the Senate (Senado) 24 members are elected by popular vote to serve 6-year terms*. In the House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan) 220 members are elected by popular vote to serve 3-year terms.**

* One-half of the members are elected every three years.

** The Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members.

Main Candidates in the Presidential race:

  • Joseph ESTRADA
    • Party: Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino (LAMMP)
  • Jose de VENECIA
    • Party: People Power-National Union of Christian Democrats (Lakas-NUCD)
  • Raul ROCO
    • Party: Democratic Action
  • Emilio OSMENA
    • Party: Progressive Movement for Development Initiatives (PROMDI)
  • Alfredo LIM
    • Party: Liberal Party (LP)
  • Renato de VILLA
    • Party: Reporma

Last Presidential election:

  • The last presidential and vice presidential elections were held on May 11, 1992. In the presidential election, Fidel Valdes RAMOS received 23.6% of the vote and thus defeated Miriam SANTIAGO, his closest competitor with 19.7% of the vote.
    In the vice presidential election, Joseph ESTRADA received 33.0% of the vote and thus defeated Marcelo FERNAN, his closest competitor with 21.7% of the vote.

Population and number of registered voters:

  • Population: 74,656,228 (1998)
  • Registered Voters: 34,163,465 (1998)

Gender Data:

·         Female Population: 37,026,041 (1998)

·         Is Philippines a signatory to CEDAW: Yes (15 July 1980)

·         Has Philippines ratified CEDAW: Yes (5 August 1981)

·         Gender Quota: No (there are some political parties that have adopted voluntary gender quotas)

·         Female candidates in this election: Yes

·         Number of Female Parliamentarians: 27 (House of Representatives); 4 (Senate) following the 1998 elections)

·         Human Development Index Position: 115 (2014)

·         Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) Categorization: Medium (2014)

Disability Data:

·         Is Philippines a signatory to CRPD: Yes (25 September 2007)

·         Has Philippines ratified CRPD: Yes (15 April 2008)

·         Population with a disability: 11,198,434 (est.)

Election Modified: Aug 17, 2023

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