May 28, 2023 Held


Republic of Türkiye

Election for Turkish Presidency


Voter Participation

Cast Votes:54,023,601
Valid Votes:53,339,313
Invalid Votes:684,288

Vote Share by Candidate:

Recep Tayyip ERDOĞAN27,834,589


Kemal KILIÇDAROĞLU25,504,724

Election Results Modified: Jun 05, 2023

General Information

At Stake in this Election: 

  • The Presidency of Turkey 

    • This is the runoff round. The first round was held on 14 May 2023.

Government Structure:  

  • Chief of State: President Recep Tayyip ERDOĞAN (since 28 August 2014) 

  • Head of Government: President Recep Tayyip ERDOĞAN (since 9 July 2019) 

  • The President became head of government when the prime minister position was eliminated in 2018 after a constitutional referendum. 

  • Assembly: unicameral Grand National Assembly (Büyük Millet Meclisi) with 600 seats 

Electoral System:  

  • The President is directly elected by absolute majority vote in up to two rounds. The President may serve up to two 5-year terms. 

  • All 600 members of the Grand National Assembly are directly elected via party-list proportional representation vote in multi-seat constituencies. Members serve 5-year terms. 

Last Election: 

In the first round of the 2023 presidential election, none of the candidates received an absolute majority of the national vote, triggering a runoff election. The top two vote-getters, ERDOĞAN (49.24%, People's Alliance) and KILIÇDAROĞLU (45.07%, National Alliance), advanced to the runoff round. Voter turnout was 85%.

New/Unique in this Election:  

Though Erdogan has already served two terms, the Supreme Election Council (YSK) ruled that his second, current term should be counted as his first due to constitutional reforms that introduced a new dual presidential and parliamentary electoral schedule. This ruling has allowed Erdogan to run again in 2023. 

Key Deadlines: 

  • Turkey uses a passive, residence-based voter registration process that occurs continuously. From 20 March to 2 April, voters were allowed to review voter rolls and request changes to their registration status.  

Main Candidates in this Election

  • Recep Tayyip ERDOĞAN 

  • Incumbent 

  • Party: The People’s Alliance / Cumhur İttifakı (CUMHUR) 

  • Coalition made up of Erdoğan’s Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP


  • Party: National Alliance / Millet İttifakı (MİLLET) 

  • Coalition formed by Kiliçdaroğlu’s Republican People’s Party (CHP), the Good Party (İYİ), and several other opposition parties 

Population and Registered Voters: 

Gender Data: 

Disability Data: 

IFES Resources: 

  • Does IFES have a presence in Turkey: No  

  • Election Access: Yes 

  • Election Judgements: Yes; 5 judgments and 32 resources 

Election Modified: Jul 10, 2023

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