IFES

Feb. 5, 2023 Confirmed

Ecuador

Republic of Ecuador

Referendum

More Info:

At Stake in this Election:

On 5 February 2023, Ecuadorian citizens will vote on a series of constitutional amendments proposed by President Guillermo LASSO.  The proposed amendments would allow the extradition of citizens involved in transnational organized crime, make the State Prosecutor’s office more autonomous, reduce the number of political parties and assembly seats, reduce the powers of the Council of Civic Participation and Social Control (CPCCS), add aquatic sites to the National Protected Areas system, and allow communities to receive government compensation for supporting ecosystem services. 

The questions on the ballot are as follows:  

  1. The extradition of Ecuadorians is prohibited for all crimes, including those related to transnational organized crime such as drug, arms, human, and migrant trafficking.  Do you agree to allow the extradition of Ecuadorians who have committed offenses related to transnational organized crime via processes that respect their rights and guarantees, thus amending the Constitution according to Appendix 1? 

  1. Currently, the Judiciary Council selects, evaluates, promotes, trains, and sanctions prosecutors.  Do you agree to guarantee the autonomy of the State Prosecutor’s office so that it may select, evaluate, promote, train, and sanction its officials via a Prosecution Council, amending the Constitution according to Appendix 2? 

  1. Currently, the National Assembly is made up of 137 assembly members, and it is estimated in the 2022 census that this number will increase to approximately 152 assembly members.  Do you agree to reduce the number of assembly members and elect them according to the following criteria: 1 assembly member per province and 1 additional assembly member per 500,000 residents; 2 national assembly members per million residents; and 1 assembly member per 500,000 overseas residents, amending the Constitution according to Appendix 3? 

  1. There are currently 272 political parties in Ecuador.  Do you agree to require political parties to have, at minimum, a number of members equivalent to 1.5% of registered voters within their jurisdiction and require them to maintain a member registry which is periodically reviewed by the National Electoral Council, amending the Constitution according to Appendix 4? 

  1. The CPCCS (Council of Civic Participation and Social Control) is a public entity that currently has the power to appoint 77 authorities. Do you agree to eliminate the CPCCS’s power to appoint authorities and to implement public processes that guarantee civic participation, meritocracy, and public scrutiny, such that the Nacional Assembly appoints, via the aforementioned processes, the authorities currently chosen by the CPCSS, amending the Constitution according to Appendix 5? 

  1. The CPCCS is a public entity that is currently elected by universal voting.  Do you agree to modify the Council of Civic Participation and Social Control member appointment process such that members are elected through a process that guarantees civic participation, meritocracy, and public scrutiny, carried out by the National Assembly, amending the Constitution according to Appendix 6? 

  1. The Constitution excludes hydrological protection areas from the National System of Protected Areas.  Do you agree that a hydrological protection subsystem shall be incorporated into the National System of Protected Areas, amending the Constitution according to Appendix 7? 

  1. The Constitution does not include compensation for those who support the production of ecosystem services.  Do you agree that persons, communities, peoples, and nationalities can become beneficiaries of compensation duly regulated by the State, for their support of the production of ecosystem services, amending the Constitution according to Appendix 8? 

Voters may respond to each question by selecting “SÍ” or “NO,” meaning “YES or “NO.”  

The 5 February mid-term elections will also include elections for 23 provincial prefects and deputy prefects, 221 mayors, 864 urban and 443 rural council members, 4,109 parish council members, and 7 members of the CPCCS, a national entity that promotes transparency and civic participation.  

Government Structure:  

  • Chief of State: President Guillermo LASSO (since 24 May 2021)  
  • Head of Government: President Guillermo LASSO (since 24 May 2021) 
  • Assembly: The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) is a unicameral legislature composed of 137 assembly members. 

Electoral System

  • The president is directly elected by absolute majority vote in up to two rounds.  The president serves a four-year term and can serve up to two terms. 
  • The National Assembly consists of 137 members who are directly elected by simple majority vote.  116 members are elected in subnational single-seat constituencies, 6 assembly members are elected by Ecuadorians living abroad (2 seats for each of 3 world regions), and 15 assembly members are elected from a single nationwide constituency. Assembly members serve a four-year term. 

Population and Registered Voters:  

Gender Data:  

Disability Data:  

IFES Resources: 

Ballot Questions in Spanish 

Q1: La extradición de ecuatorianos está prohibida en todos los delitos, incluso aquellos relacionados al crimen organizado transnacional como el narcotráfico, tráfico de armas, trata de personas y tráfico de migrantes.   ¿Está usted de acuerdo con permitir la extradición de ecuatorianos que hayan cometido delitos relacionados con el crimen organizado transnacional, a través de procesos que respeten los derechos y garantías, enmendando la Constitución de acuerdo con el Anexo 1? 

Q2: Actualmente, el Consejo de la Judicatura selecciona, evalúa, asciende, capacita y sanciona a fiscales. ¿Está usted de acuerdo con garantizar a la autonomía del Fiscalía General del Estado, para que esta seleccione, evalúe, ascienda, capacite y sancione a los servidores que la conforman a través de un Consejo Fiscal, enmendando al Constitución de acuerdo con el Anexo 2? 

Q3: En la actualidad, la Asamblea Nacional está integrada por 137 asambleístas y se estima que, con el censo poblacional de 2022, este número ascienda aproximadamente a 152 asambleístas. ¿Está usted de acuerdo con reducir el número de asambleístas y que se los elija de acuerdo a los siguientes criterios: 1 asambleísta por provincia y 1 asambleísta provincial adicional por cada 250.000 habitantes; 2 asambleístas nacionales por cada millón de habitantes; y 1 asambleísta por cada 500.000 habitantes que residan en el exterior, enmendando al Constitución de acuerdo con el Anexo 3? 

Q4: Actualmente existen 272 movimientos políticos en el Ecuador. ¿Está usted de acuerdo con exigir que los movimientos políticos cuenten con un número de afiliados mínimo equivalente al 1.5% del registro electoral de su jurisdicción y obligarlos a llevar un registro de sus miembros auditado periódicamente por el Consejo Nacional Electoral, enmendando la Constitución de acuerdo con el Anexo 4? 

Q5: El CPCCS es una entidad pública que actualmente tiene el poder de designar a 77 autoridades. ¿Está usted de acuerdo con eliminar la facultad de designar autoridades que tiene el CPCCS e implementar procesos públicos que garanticen participación ciudadana, meritocracia y escrutinio público, de modo que sea la Asamblea Nacional la que designe a través de estos procesos a las autoridades que actualmente elige el CPCCS enmendando al Constitución de acuerdo con el Anexo 5? 

Q6: El CPCCS es una entidad pública que actualmente es elegida por sufragio universal. ¿Está usted de acuerdo con modificar el proceso de designación de los miembros del Consejo de Participación Ciudadana y Control Social, para que sean elegidos mediante un proceso que garantice participación ciudadana, meritocracia, escrutinio público, llevado a cabo por la Asamblea Nacional, enmendando la Constitución de acuerdo con el Anexo 6? 

Q7: La Constitución excluye del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas a las áreas de protección hídrica. ¿Está usted de acuerdo con que se incorpore un subsistema de protección hídrica al Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas, enmendando al Constitución de acuerdo con el Anexo 7? 

Q8: La Constitución no prevé compensaciones a quienes apoyan a la generación de servicios ambientales. ¿Está usted de acuerdo con que las personas, comunidades, pueblos y nacionalidades, puedan ser beneficiarios de compensaciones debidamente regularizadas por el Estado, por su apoyo a la generación de servicios ambientales, enmendando la Constitución de acuerdo con el Anexo 8?