Oct. 4, 1998 Held


Federative Republic of Brazil

Election for Brazilian Presidency


Voter Participation

Cast Votes:83,673,537
Valid Votes:67,701,559
Invalid Votes:15,971,978

Vote Share by Candidate:

Fernando Henrique CARDOSO35,936,916


Luiz Inacio (Lula) DA SILVA21,475,330


Ciro GOMES7,426,232


Eneas CARNEIRO1,447,080

Election Results Modified: Jun 21, 2024

General Information

At stake in this election:

  • The office of President of Brazil

Description of government structure:

  • Chief of State: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO *
  • Head of Government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO
  • Assembly: Brazil has a bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional) consisting of the Federal Senate (Senado Federal) with 81 seats and the Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados) with 513 seats.

* A runoff between the top two candidates is not necessary in the event that one candidate receives more votes in the first round than all of his/her rivals combined.

Description of electoral system:

  • The President is elected by simple majority vote to serve a 4-year term.
  • In the Federal Senate (Senado Federal) 81 members are elected by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms*. In the Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados) 513 members are elected by proportional representation to serve 4-year terms.

* Elections to the Federal Senate are staggered. In 1994 two-thirds of the Senate (54 seats) was up for election; in 1998 one-third of the Senate (27 seats) was up for election.

Main Candidates in the Presidential race:

  • Fernando Henrique CARDOSO
    • Party: Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB)
  • Luiz Inacio (Lula) DA SILVA
    • Party: Workers' Party (PT)
  • Ciro GOMES
    • Party: Popular Socialist Party (PPS)
  • Eneas CARNEIRO
    • Party: National Order Redefinition Party (PRONA)

Last Presidential election:

  • The last presidential election was held on October 3, 1994. In this election, Fernando Henrique CARDOSO received 52.97% of the vote and thus defeated Luiz Inacio (Lula) DA SILVA, his closest competitor with 26.39% of the vote.

Population and number of registered voters:

  • Population: 169,806,557 (July 1998 )
  • Registered Voters: 106,076,088 ( 1998 )

Gender Data:

·         Female Population: 86,212,065 (1998)

·         Is Brazil a signatory to CEDAW: Yes (31 March 1981)

·         Has Brazil ratified CEDAW: Yes (1 February 1984)

·         Gender Quota: Yes

·         Female candidates in this election: Yes

·         Number of Female Parliamentarians: 29 (Chamber of Deputies); 6 (Federal Senate) (following 1998 elections)

·         Human Development Index Position: 75 (2014)

·         Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) Categorization: Low (2014)

Disability Data:

·         Is Brazil a signatory to CRPD: Yes (30 March 2007)

·         Has Brazil ratified CRPD: Yes (1 August 2008)

·         Population with a disability: 25,470,983 (est.)

Election Modified: Jun 21, 2024

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