IFES
Record Modified: Sep 27 2023

Aug. 23, 2023 Held

Zimbabwe

Republic of Zimbabwe

Election for Zimbabwean Presidency

Results

Voter
Turnout*
Cast Votes:4,561,221
Valid Votes:4,468,668
Invalid Votes:92,553

Candidates:

Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA2,350,711

52.60

Nelson CHAMISA1,976,343

44.00

More Info:

At Stake in this Election: 

  • The Presidency of Zimbabwe 

This election occurs concurrently with parliamentary (Senate and National Assembly) and municipal council elections. 

Government Structure:  

  • Chief of State: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017) 

  • Head of Government: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017) 

  • Assembly: bicameral Parliament with an 80-seat Senate and a 270-seat National Assembly 

Electoral System:  

  • The President is directly elected by absolute majority vote in up to two rounds and may serve an unlimited number of 5-year terms. 

  • In the Senate, 60 members are directly elected via proportional representation vote in multi-seat constituencies (provinces). An additional 16 members are indirectly elected by regional councils, while 2 seats are reserved for people with disabilities and 2 are reserved for chiefs of the National Council. All members serve 5-year terms. 

  • In the National Assembly, 210 members are directly elected by plurality vote in single-seat constituencies. The remaining 60 seats are filled by women directly elected via proportional representation vote. All members serve 5-year terms. 

Last Election: 

In 2018, incumbent Emmerson MNANGAGWA (ZANU-PF) won the presidency with 50.8% of the vote, defeating Nelson CHAMISA (MDC). Voter turnout was 86.45%. 

New/Unique in this Election: 

Zimbabwean courts upheld a 2022 law that increased candidate registration fees to USD $20,000 for presidential candidates (a 20-fold increase) and USD $1,000 for parliamentary candidates. In June 2023, Parliament also passed the Criminal Law Code Amendment, a law that broadly prohibits acts against “the sovereignty and national interest of Zimbabwe.” Opposition candidates have expressed concerns that this law could be used to punish those who criticize the government. 

Key Deadlines: 

  • Candidate filing deadline: 21 June 2023 

  • Extended to 22 June 2023 for partially registered candidates due to fee transfer delays caused by systemic banking issues 

  • Voter registration deadline: 2 June 2023 

Main Candidates in this Election: 

  • Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA 

  • Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU PF) 

  • Nelson CHAMISA 

  • Citizen’s Coalition for Change (CCC) 

  • Douglas TOGARASEI 

  • Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) 

  • Joseph Makamba BUSHA 

  • FreeZim Congress 

  • Trust Tapiwa CHIKOHORA 

  • Zimbabwe Coalition for Peace and Development (ZCPD) 

  • Blessing KASIYAMHURU 

  • Zimbabwe Partnership for Prosperity (ZIPP) 

  • Saviour KASUKUWERE 

  • Independent 

  • Lovemore MADHUKU 

  • National Constitutional Assembly (NCA) 

  • Wilbert Archibald MUBAIWA 

  • National People’s Congress (NPC) 

  • Gwinyai Henry MUZOREWA 

  • United African National Council (UANC) 

  • Harry Peter WILSON 

  • Democratic Official Party (DOP) 

Population and Registered Voters: 

Gender Data: 

  • CEDAW Status: Ratified (by accession) 13 May 1991 

  • Gender Quota:  Within the National Assembly, there are 60 seats reserved for women, six from each province. Candidate lists for Senate elections must alternate between men and women. 

  • Female Candidates in this election: Yes 

  • Number of Female Legislators (pre-election): 34 out of 77 (44.2%) in the Senate, 81 out of 265 (30.6%) in the National Assembly 

  • Human Development Index (HDI) Position: 0.593, Medium, Rank 146 (2021) 

Disability Data: 

IFES Resources: 

  • Does IFES have a presence in Zimbabwe: No 

  • Election Access: Yes 

  • Election Judgements: Yes; 8 judgements and 16 resources