Feb. 25, 2023 Held


Federal Republic of Nigeria

Election for Nigerian Senate

General Information

At Stake in this Election:  

  • All 109 seats of the Senate of Nigeria 

The Senate, House, and presidential elections will take place concurrently on 25 February 2023. State assembly elections (36 states) and gubernatorial elections (28 states) will be held on 18 March, and gubernatorial elections will be held in Imo, Kogi, and Bayelsa states in the fall of 2023.   

Government Structure:  

  • Chief of State: Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015)  

  • Head of Government: Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015) 

  • Assembly: Bicameral legislature consisting of a 109-seat Senate and 360-seat House of Representatives 

Electoral System:  

  • The President is directly elected by majority vote in up to two rounds. The president serves a 4-year term and may be reelected once.  

  • To win the presidency, a candidate must receive a majority of the national vote and at least 25% of the vote in 24 out of 36 states. If no candidate achieves this in the first round, the top two candidates advance to the second (and final) round. 

  • The Senate is composed of 109 members elected to 4-year terms by simple majority vote.  Each state is divided into 3 senatorial districts, each electing one senator.  One senator is also elected from the Federal Capital Territory. 

  • The House of Representatives is composed of 360 members elected by simple majority vote in single-member constituencies.  They serve 4-year terms. 

Last Election:  

In 2019, the All Progressives Party (APC) won a majority with 64 seats.  The People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 44 seats, and the Young Progressives Party (YPP) won a single seat, reducing the number of parties represented in the Senate from 6 to 3.  Voter turnout was 35.66%. 

New/Unique in this Election:   

The Electoral Act 2022 repeals the previous Electoral Act 2010 and makes procedural changes to many parts of the electoral process, including party primaries and candidate registration deadlines.  The act also gives the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) greater financial independence, places additional restrictions on campaign spending, and allows the use of voting machines, and mandates the electronic transmission of results to a central election database.  The act also requires political appointees to resign thirty days before becoming a candidate. 

Key Deadlines:  

  • Candidate filing deadline: 8 August 2022 

  • Voter registration deadline: 31 July 2022 

Main Parties in this Election:   

  • All Progressives Congress (APC) 

  • Leader: Abdullahi ADAMU 

  • Seats won in last election: 64 

  • People’s Democratic Party (PDP) 

  • Leader: Iyorchia AYU 

  • Seats won in last election: 44 

  • Young Progressives Party (YPP) 

  • Leader: Emmanuel Bishop AMAKIRI 

  • Seats won in last election: 1 

Population and Registered Voters:  

  • Population: 225,082,083 (2022 estimate)  

  • Registered Voters: 93,469,008 (2023)  

Gender Data:  

  • Female Population: 111,426,774  

  • CEDAW status: Signed 23 April 1984; Ratified 13 June 1985 

  • Gender Quota:  No 

  • Female Candidates in this election: Yes 

  • Number of Female Legislators (pre-election): 8 out of 109 in the Senate; 13 out of 360 in the House of Representatives  

  • Human Development Index (HDI) Position: Rank 163, 0.535 (2021 estimate)  

  • Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) Categorization: High, 46% (2019 estimate)   

Disability Data:  

  • CRPD status: Signed 30 March 2007; Ratified 24 September 2010 

  • Projected population with disability: 33,762,312 (2022 est.) 

IFES Resources:  

  • Election Access: Yes 

  • Election Judgements: Yes, 11 judgements & 21 resources 

Election Modified: Mar 21, 2023

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