126,854,745 19

Population (as of Feb. 8, 2019)

Elections in our database


Registered Voters (as of )

Average Turnout

Name Official Name Type
Japanese House of Representatives Shugiin Lower House
Japanese House of Councillors Sangiin Upper House

Description of government structure:

  • Chief of State: Emperor AKIHITO *
  • Head of Government: Prime Minister Shinzō ABE
  • Assembly: Japan has a bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consisting of the House of Councillors (Sangiin) with 242 seats and the House of Representatives (Shugiin) with 480 seats.

* Japan's emperor, AKHITO serves as a symbolic figurehead of the nation's past. Unlike other monarchies, the emperor of Japan is not the nominal head of state. Japan's Constitution, written in 1947, demoted the emperor to a “symbol of the state and of the unity of the people,” stripping the emperor of all “powers related to government.”

Description of electoral system:

  • Prime Minister is appointed by parliament.
  • In the House of Councillors (Sangiin), 96 members are elected through an open-list proportional representation system to serve 6-year terms and 146 members are elected by single non-transferable vote to serve 6-year terms*. In the House of Representatives (Shugiin), 300 members are elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies to serve 4-year terms and 180 members are elected through a closed-list proportional representation system to serve 4-year terms.**

* Terms are staggered with one half of each tier elected every election. In the ordinal tier, there is one nationwide district. In the nominal tier, constituencies correspond to prefectural or metropolitan boundaries. There are 47 constituencies with magnitudes ranging from 2 and 10 seats. Because half of all members are up for reelection every cycle, 29 members run in single-seat districts (their fellow district representative is not running) and 44 members run in 18 multi-member districts consisting of anywhere between 2 and 5 seats. In order to secure a seat, a candidate must obtain enough votes that are equal to or greater than one-sixth of the total number of valid votes divided by the number of contested seats in the district.

** In the proportional representation tier, there are 11 multi-member districts consisting of anywhere between 6 and 29 seats. Candidacy in both tiers is permitted, however, candidates are only allowed to run in the proportional representation block in which their single-seat constituency is located. Candidates running in single-member districts must secure one-sixth of all votes to win a seat.

Info Institutions Learn More


Election For Date Votes Registered Voters Turn Out
Japanese House of Representatives 1996-10-20 58,262,930 97,680,719 59.65%
Japanese House of Councillors 1998-07-12 58,280,396 99,048,700 58.84%
Japanese House of Representatives 2000-06-25 62,764,239 100,433,798 62.49%
Japanese House of Councillors 2001-07-29 57,138,887 101,236,029 56.44%
Japanese House of Representatives 2001-07-29 61,196,418 102,232,944 59.86%
Irish House of Representatives 2003-11-09 61,196,418 102,232,944 59.86%
Japanese House of Councillors 2004-07-11 57,990,757 102,507,526 56.57%
Japanese House of Representatives 2005-09-11 69,532,186 103,067,966 67.46%
Japanese House of Councillors 2007-07-29 60,813,927 103,710,035 58.64%
Japanese House of Representatives 2009-08-30 72,003,538 103,949,442 69.27%
Japanese House of Councillors 2010-07-11 60,255,670 104,029,135 57.92%
Japanese House of Representatives 2012-12-16 61,669,473 103,959,866 59.32%
Japanese House of Councillors 2013-07-21 54,798,927 104,152,590 52.61%
Japanese House of Representatives 2014-12-14 54,743,087 103,962,784 52.66%
Japanese House of Councillors 2016-07-10 - - -
Japanese House of Representatives 2017-10-22 56,947,831 106,091,229 -
Japanese House of Councillors 2019-07-21 - - -
Japanese House of Representatives 2021-10-22 - - -
Japanese House of Councillors 2022-07-25 - - -

Voter Turnout